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The Truth About Narcissistic Personality Disorder

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Every once in a while, a new diagnostic label emerges into mass consciousness and people start to use it (and misuse it) as a synonym for bad behavior. This year’s label seems to be “Narcissist.” I thought that it might be useful to clarify what mental health professionals mean when they talk about narcissism.

What is Narcissistic Personality Disorder?

Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) is the name for a series of coping strategies that began as an adaptation to a childhood family situation that left the person with unstable self-esteem, the inability to regulate their self-esteem without external validation, and low empathy. As with all three of the major categories of personality disorders—Borderline, Narcissistic, and Schizoid—people with NPD also lack “whole object relations” and “object constancy.”

  • Whole Object Relations: This is the capacity to see oneself and others in a stable and integrated way that acknowledges both the person’s good and bad qualities.
  • Object Constancy: This is the ability to maintain a positive emotional connection to someone that you like while you are angry, hurt, frustrated, or disappointed by his or her behavior.

Without “whole object relations” and “object constancy” people with NPD can only see themselves and other people in one of two ways: either they are special, unique, omnipotent, perfect, and entitled (High Status); or they are defective, worthless, garbage (Low Status).  This means that the person struggling with Narcissistic issues cannot hold onto his or her good opinion and good feelings about someone, once he or she notices the other person has a flaw.  The other person goes from being special and put on a pedestal to being devalued as “nothing special.” 

Narcissists often seesaw back and forth between these two. When they are feeling good about you (or more accurately, you are making them feel good about themselves), they see you as special.  Then you do…

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